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Breaking homegrown crypto

Note: this is a pretty long article which does a deep dive into breaking some amateur crypto. I go on for quite a bit. Make a cup of tea before reading, and get ready to read some code!

introduction

Everyone knows it. Rolling your own cryptography is a terrible idea. Here’s Bruce Schneier writing about it in 1999. Here’s an excellent answer on the Infosec Stack Exchange about why you shouldn’t do it. Here’s another Scheiner post with an excellent opening sentence.

This, then, is a post about a broken homegrown cryptosystem; namely, that used in CodeIgniter, pre-2.2. This version was current until the release of CodeIgniter 2.2, on the 5th of June, 2014, and you can still find sites on it today.

The attack described in the post depends on a lot of things to go right (or wrong, if you will); it’s not just that they used a bad cipher, but also the fact that they rolled their own session storage, and implemented a fallback, and a dozen other things. This is probably typical for most bugs of this class; a bunch of bad decisions which aren’t thought through find their logical conclusion in complete insecurity.

Let’s get into it!

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Snapchat: not for state secrets

I use Snapchat. It’s an app where you can take a photo or short (< 10 second) video and send it to your friends who use the service; they’ll then be able to see it, once, before it disappears forever.

Ostensibly, the app is for sexting, because there’s no fear that your photo will get spread around (no forwarding/etc.) or retained for longer than you’d like, but it seems like it’s not as much a sexter’s hangout as the media might want you to think.

My circle of friends use it basically as an extension of weird Twitter – most snaps I send and receive are strange angles of weird objects; the completely mundane but somehow therapeutic (7 seconds of the camera pointed outside the window of a tram, pointed at the ground moving below); or just closeups of Curtis Stone’s face, wherever we see him.

Of course, the promise that they won’t get retained is just that: a promise. Since your phone receives this image and shows it to you at some point, it must be downloaded by your phone. If it can be downladed by the phone, it can be downloaded by something else. We decided to find out how.

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Escapology: how, when and why to encode and escape

As programmers, we spend a lot of time just carting data from one place to another. Sometimes that’s the entire purpose of a program or library (data conversion whatevers), but more often it’s just something that needs to happen in the course of getting a certain task done. When we’re sending a request, using a library, executing templates or whatever, it’s important to be 100% clear on the format of the data, which is a fancy way of saying how the data is encoded.

Let’s do the tacky dictionary thing:

encoding (plural encodings)

  1. (computing) The way in which symbols are mapped onto bytes, e.g. in the rendering of a particular font, or in the mapping from keyboard input into visual text.

  2. A conversion of plain text into a code or cypher form (for decoding by the recipient).

I think these senses are a bit too specific—if your data is in a computer in any form, then it’s already encoded. The keyboard doesn’t even have to come into it.

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